A continuous accessible path of travel is a fundamental requirement for equitable access to the built environment. This should be provided from any car park, public transport or taxi set down area and property boundary to and through any buildings, facilities, installations and key elements within a site. This route can consist of pathways, roadways, pedestrian crossings and ramps. It cannot incorporate any step, stairway, turnstile, revolving door, escalator, moving walk or other impediment.
The key requirements of accessible approaches, on-site roadways and pedestrian crossings include:
- consideration of all modes of transport including pedestrians, bicycles, motor vehicles, scooters, wheelchairs, taxis and buses
- wide pathways and roadways suitable for the expected volume of pedestrians or vehicle traffic
- firm, level, slip resistant ground surfaces in both wet and dry conditions
- minimal cross falls on pathways and at pedestrian crossings
- adequate overhead clearances along the entire length of the access route
- hazard tactile ground surface indicators at pedestrian and vehicle conflicts and pedestrian crossings
- bollards installed to ensure parked vehicles do not encroach onto pathways
- wide openings between any bollards and at gates, with appropriate circulation space available on both sides for ease of access by pedestrians
- landscaping elements that do not create visual confusion within pathway ground surfaces but are incorporated along the edges of pathways to assist with wayfinding, for example, colour contrast edges, low level plantings with specific scents
- seating and shelter for pedestrians at regular intervals along pathways and at public transport stops
- clear, concise, easy to read signage, incorporating international symbols of access or deafness, identifying key elements along access routes
- clear, concise, easy to read signage, incorporating international symbols of access or deafness, identifying shared vehicle and pedestrian pathways indicating designated areas of use
- where possible, separate pedestrian, vehicle and bicycle paths incorporating clearly defined and marked boundaries
- consistent and even lighting (reflected downward - without pooling or producing glare).
- Clear definition between the roadway and pathway system through the use of coloured ground surfaces or tactile installations.
- Roads that incorporate a direct connection, for example, kerb ramp to pathways at alighting or departure points, for example, taxi ranks, public transport stops and car parks.
- In larger car parks, provision of separate vehicle entry and exit points to assist with the flow of traffic and speed humps strategically located to increase safety.
- Roadways incorporating adequate width and turning circles that are appropriate for the expected traffic type and volume, for example, minibuses and public buses.
- Designated pedestrian crossings at regular intervals and appropriate locations.
- Clearly defined pedestrian crossings incorporating a contrasting colour ground surface to adjacent and background surfaces.
- Clearly signed and designated pedestrian crossings that indicate ‘right of way for pedestrians’, to avoid confusion with traffic calming devices.
- Pedestrian crossings, medians and kerb ramps that are wide and deep enough to allow all users to wait with safety, for example, parent with pram.
- Appropriate kerb ramps that extend across the width of pedestrian crossings.
- Non-slip paintwork at any pedestrian crossing point.
- Controls at signal operated pedestrian crossings that can be easily reached by a person when standing or seated and operated with a closed fist or open palm, incorporating audible, visible and tactile signal notification elements.
- Sensor operated pedestrian crossing controls where possible.
- ‘Puffin’ pedestrian crossings that extend the crossing time at locations where it is anticipated larger numbers of older adults may require access.
- Pedestrian crossing poles with an effective contrast to background and adjacent surfaces.
Key access dimensions
Figure 1: Pedestrian crossing
- Appropriate kerb ramps that extend across the width of pedestrian crossings
- Clearly defined pedestrian crossings incorporating a contrasting colour ground surface to adjacent and background surfaces
- Non-slip paintwork at any pedestrian crossing point.
- A continuous accessible path of travel that is a minimum of 2000mm high and 1000mm wide for an ambulant person, 1200mm wide for a person using a wheelchair, 1500mm wide for two people to pass each other easily and 1800mm wide for a person using a wheelchair to turn 180°.
- Signage installed within appropriate ‘Zones for Viewing’ in accordance with Australian Standards.
- Tactile ground surface indicators set back 300mm ± 10mm from any hazard (600 - 800mm deep), extending across width of a path adjoining the hazard, and have a minimum of 30% luminance contrast to the surrounding ground surface and background. (Dimensions for tactile ground surface indicators, both hazard and directional, at specific locations and required luminance in accordance with Australian Standards).
- Gradient / cross slope on pathways not steeper than 1:40.
- Kerb ramps that have a maximum rise of 190mm, length of 1520mm, grade of 1:8 and a minimum width of 1000mm.
- Kerb ramps that incorporate a level landing at the top and bottom that considers the direction of travel.
- Audible and visible pedestrian crossing controls to Australian Standards.
- Pedestrian crossing controls of appropriate type and within the appropriate reach ranges in accordance with Australian Standards.
- Minimum 30% luminance contrast between crossing poles, vehicle and pedestrian separation installations, fittings and background and adjacent surfaces.
- Lighting installed to required lux levels in accordance with the range in Australian Standards.
Table 1: Relevant Australian Standards for approaches, on-site roadways and pedestrian crossings
|AS 1428.1 – 2009||Design for access and mobility - General Requirements for Access - New Building Work|
|AS 1428.2 - 1992||Design for access and mobility - Enhanced and Additional Requirements - Buildings and Facilities|
|AS/NZS 1428.4.1 - 2009||Tactile Ground Surface Indicators for the Orientation of People with Vision Impairment|
|AS 1428.5: 2010||Communication for People who are Deaf or Hearing Impaired|
|AS 4586 - 2013||Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials|
|AS/NZS 1158 - 2010||Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces|
|Disability (Access to Premises - Buildings) Standards 2010|